Summer 2019

Hi everyone!

As this year comes to a close, I wanted to take the time to thank all of you for your contribution to the magazine, and to congratulate all of our graduating seniors. You all are capable of so much, and it has truly been an honor to study along side of you. The Summer 2019 edition of Spring Hill's PAX Magazine features a variety of works such as poems, short papers, informational works, and opinion pieces. Each one of these fellow Badgers put time and effort into their works, so thank you all for contributing to our Peace and Justice Magazine. I hope you all had a wonderful spring semester, and I hope that the summer semester helps you all gain some renewal before the fall semester begins!

Your editor,

Hana Blalack

Cultural Norms Damage to Females

In India, China, Africa, and some parts of the Middle East, cultural practices often physiologically and psychologically harm females. The practices are culturally specific to the region. In India and China, it is more common and socially acceptable to perform female infanticide and in Africa and Western parts of the Middle East, female genital mutilation is considered appropriate and necessary. Both are highly considered to benefit the families positively both economically and socially. 

Intersectionality at a Crossroads: How Migrant Status, Gender, Race, and Culture Effect Employment Opportunities for Resettled and Immigrant Women

The intersectionality of gender, race, immigrant status, and culture all pay a major role in disadvantaging women in the workplace in countries where they are resettled. Immigrant status and race disadvantage people because they contribute to differences in language, level of education, and availability of opportunities of employment for individuals. Gender and culture disadvantage individuals because cultural norms and gender roles and ideals may contribute to the type of work in which individuals engage. These factors are all combined for immigrant and refugee women, and this results in unique difficulties in employment opportunities as they move to a new place. 

Why Women Hate Their Bodies

There are many factors that may contribute to the way people view their own bodies. A major factor in the adoption of negative body image and body shaming comes from the role of the media in cultural standards and ideals. Body type ideals vary across cultures, however it has been found that in Western cultures there is a greater emphasis on the objectification of the female body. This objectification has been severely detrimental to female mental health due to its link to self-objectification and social comparisons. As the cultural ideal body type becomes increasingly more unattainable over time, increased media exposure to this ideal has a negative effect on female mental health.

The Evolution of the View of Sex and the Body in Catholic History

Sexuality has been an ever-present topic considered by the Catholic Church. In particular, the way that sex itself and the body have been perceived within the Church’s history garnersattention even today. From Genesis came a foundation for the denial of the body, which influenced the view of sex and marriage for the early Christian Church and had continued into the 1960s. However, in recent years, a new movement has arisen to redefine the laity’s view of the Church’s teachings and the argumentation used in sexual morality, providing a response to these cultural changes and the previous perceptions held.

Childlessness: Reasoning & Societal Perception

The decision to have children is an incredibly significant life choice; however, sometimes it seems as though society forgets or ignores that having children is, in fact, a choice. As a result, childless individuals can be perceived as being different despite the fact that having children (or not) should not be compulsory, but rather respected as an individualized choice that can vary from person to person. This paper will explore the various reasons why some people are childless and the various ways in which society perceives childless individuals and conclude by noting potential ways in which society could change so as to be more accommodating for those who are deciding whether or not they want children.

The Wage Gap in Professional Soccer

Since the establishment of the Equal Pay Act of 1963, wage discrimination based on sex has been illegal in the United States; however, just because it is illegal, does not mean that it is nonexistent. The wage gap is defined as the difference in pay between men and women (Bosson, Vendello, & Buckner, p. 387). In the United States, reports from across all industries show a gap in wages between men and women with professional sports being no exception to gender inequality. Over the past five years, the United States Women’s National Team has been at the forefront of the fight for equal pay between male and female professional athletes. In what has been a bleak history of unequal salaries, the U.S. Women’s National Team has become a beacon of hope for female athletes across the world. One American player, Christen Press, described it as a “women’s coming together movement” in the plight against the wage gap (Das, 2018). Discrimination takes on many forms, and one of the most extensive examples of sex-based discrimination can be seen in the wage gap. While fighting for equal pay, the United States Women’s National Team showcases the extent to which biases against women are reflected in the wage gap.

Its the first page of a new journal

Every other page bare to the bones

Like a kind heart after the world

Orders it from the menu

Every other line, space, and margin

The fullest empty vessel


This essay uses the lens of Marxist dialectical historical materialism and Gramscian cultural theory to examine the differences and development of relationship organizing styles. Specific focus is given to economic modes of production, the function of the models within society, and hegemonic cultural norms influencing attitudes and ideas about these models. I will argue that the relationship structures individuals pursue are resultant from their social conditioning and the material conditions that they have to work with (which, as Marx and Gramsci would point out, are very much intertwined). The essay will be divided into three essential parts: 1). Contemporary and historical dominate relationship organizing styles,  2). Contemporary forms of ethical non monogamy (ENM), 3). Why ethical non monogamy might be increasing in practice and popularity.  

Debate in general has three uses: entertainment; persuasion; and knowledge. These aren’t mutually exclusive, but I’ll explain each of the three uses separately. Then I’ll tell you what I know about how to be successful at them.

To begin with, almost all media discourse about politics and ethics is about entertainment. This is what cable news, talk radio, and much of social media are largely for. People generally watch not because they expect to be persuaded, and people produce these media generally not because they expect to persuade anyone. Instead, it’s pure entertainment. We enjoy feeling good about ourselves. We feel good about ourselves when people tell us we’re correct about things and that the bad people are wrong and evil. And some of us enjoy being in the middle of these debates; we like to show off, or we just like the feeling of competition. Talking about political topics is also a major source of social bonding; people use political discourse to strengthen their social relationships. We get together with our friends and family and talk about how the other side is evil.

What it means to be a pretty girl or a handsome guy stems from multiple sources in society. These characteristics vary, depending on gender and the internalization of these ideas. Female body ideals are strongly associated with thinness, large breasts, and other signifiers of "sexiness." Male ideals are associated with leanness, but more specifically with muscularity. These body ideals come from society itself and what is portrayed in the media. As they become older, women and men watch, internalize, and attempt to become the ideal body. Internalization causes negative effects on both men and women. They began to work for these unrealistic bodies, and most fail to do so. This failure causes a psychological toll because they feel the only way to be desirable and acceptable is by having these ideal body images. The high level of desire to achieve the ideal status leads to drastic measures, such as plastic surgery.

Have you ever been to a gender reveal or baby shower? If so, then you have probably noticed that the color scheme was pink if it was a girl, or blue if it was a boy; this is a perfect example of a stereotype. However, this stereotype is not very extreme when it comes to the emotional effects it has, unlike the stereotypes faced by woman, such as the common belief that beauty is only skinny. Today’s society holds women to a high standard through their stereotypical view of what a woman should be.

So That I May


I don’t walk backwards

I don’t dwell in the past

I don’t look back

I don’t repeat the same mistake

I don’t give trust

Every so often, we hear or use, to some extent, the phrase “women are so emotional”and it has become so engraved in our minds that we do not even question it. This phrase however, is not as objective as we have made it to be overtime. Rather, differences of emotionality between genders has a lot more to do with gender roles and expectations than the reality of emotional experience. Emotionality involves the concepts of emotional experience, emotional expression, as well as perception of emotions, all of which are intertwined with social norms and stereotypes (Bosson, Vandello, & Buckner). Consequently, men and women express emotions within the context of what is acceptable and expected of their gender. Among other consequences, gender-based differences in emotionality have an effect on heterosexual relationships, especially when it comes to communication of emotions.

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